Toxin Exposure 

The human body is exposed to endogenous toxin, environmental toxicants and toxins on daily basis that can put pressure on the body's natural metabolic detoxification capacity.  The environment contains close to 80,000 novel chemicals which are registered with the United States Environmental Protection Agency since World War II, but many have not had thorough vetting for risk to human health1.  Improper clearance of toxins may play a role in obesity, cardiovascular disease,2 neurocognitive concerns, immune dysfunction,3 chemical intolerance,4 and reproductive and developmental concern.1-2, 5

Toxins versus toxicants: The word "toxin" is defined as a harmful compound made by bacteria, plants or animals, while the word “toxicant” refers to harmful compound made by humans or that is introduced into the environment by human activities. Each toxic substance has a defined dose or concentration at which it produces its harmful effect. Toxicants are exogenous harmful compounds that enter our body via air, drinking water and food. Toxins, on the other hand, could be either exogenous (found in the environment) or endogenous (produced by our own body). In the present document, the word “toxin” will be used to indicate either toxins (biological source) or toxicants (chemical source). 

The 3 Phases of Detoxification6
The human body has well-defined detoxification system to eliminate toxins.  This system is defined by 3 phases.

Key biochemical processes responsible for clearance of toxins from our bodies is the biotransformation process, also called the metabolic detoxification system. This system is comprised of Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III pathways. The detoxification system is highly dependent on proper nutrient support for optimal functioning. Nutritional support for biotransformation system is extremely important for any detoxification program. Fasting or poor nutritional support during a detoxification program has many adverse health effects, including decreased energy production, brain fog, mood and sleep difficulties, break down of lean tissue, up regulation of detox Phase I enzymes activities with a concomitant increase in oxidative stress, and decreased levels of Phase II cofactors. Detoxification is an energy-dependent process and maintenance of adequate energy supply is crucial.

The majority of toxins are lipid-soluble molecules. It is difficult for our body to excrete lipid-soluble molecules and these compounds can easily cross cell membranes and affect cellular activities. These lipid-soluble toxins are stored mainly in adipose tissue and the central nervous system.

Our body has a complex, integrated system designed to convert lipid-soluble toxins to water-soluble molecules, after which they can be excreted through renal or biliary routes. This system is called the detoxification or biotransformation system, including Phase I and Phase II metabolizing enzymes and Phase III protein transporters.

The detoxification system converts the lipid-soluble toxin to a water-soluble molecule by conjugating (binding) the toxin to another molecule such as an amino acid, methyl group or glutathione. However, most toxins do not naturally have a reactive site that enables them to bind to a conjugation molecule. Phase I enzymes create a reactive site on the toxin compound that enable them to bind to a conjugation molecule.

References

  1. Sears, M. E.; Genuis, S. J., Environmental determinants of chronic disease and medical approaches: recognition, avoidance, supportive therapy, and detoxification. J Environ Public Health 2012, 2012, 356798.
  2. Mostafalou, S.; Abdollahi, M., Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013, 268 (2), 157-77.
  3. Jochmanova, I.; Lazurova, Z.; Rudnay, M.; Bacova, I.; Marekova, M.; Lazurova, I., Environmental estrogen bisphenol A and autoimmunity. Lupus 2015, 24 (4-5), 392-9.
  4. Liska, D.; Lyon, M.; Jones, D. S., Detoxification and biotransformational imbalances. Explore (NY) 2006, 2 (2), 122-40.
  5. Polanska, K.; Jurewicz, J.; Hanke, W., Review of current evidence on the impact of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and selected metals on attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in children. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2013, 26 (1), 16-38.
  6. Hodges, R. E.; Minich, D. M., Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. J Nutr Metab 2015, 2015, 760689.

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